Skip to main content
Published Online:https://doi.org/10.3928/00989134-20160615-03Cited by:1

Abstract

The current study examined the effects of aromatherapy massage on alleviating agitation and depressive mood in individuals with dementia. A randomized controlled trial and repeated measures design was conducted. A total of 59 participants were randomly assigned to intervention or control groups. The intervention group received aromatherapy massage once per week for 8 weeks. Results indicated no significant changes over time in overall agitation for either group, but agitation decreased from Week 1 to Week 5 for the intervention group. In addition, the overall depressive symptoms decreased significantly over time for the intervention group compared to the control group (p < 0.001). However, changes in agitation within 24 hours following aromatherapy massage showed some significant changes in Weeks 5 and 9. Aromatherapy massage can be an effective and safe intervention to alleviate specific agitated behaviors and depressive mood in individuals with dementia. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 42(9), 38–46.]

  • Aalten P., Verhey F.R.J., Boziki M., Bullock R., Byrne E.J., Camus V., Robert P.H. (2007). Neuropsychiatric syndromes in dementia: Results from the European Alzheimer Disease Consortium: Part I. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 24, 457–463.10.1159/000110738

    CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Algase D.L., Beck C., Kolanowski A., Whall A., Berent S., Richards K., Beattie E. (1996). Need-driven dementia-compromised behavior: An alternative view of disruptive behavior. American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias, 11, 10–19.10.1177/153331759601100603

    CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Ballard C., Oyebode F. (1995). Psychotic symptoms in patients with dementia. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 10, 743–752.10.1002/gps.930100904

    CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Burns A., Perry E., Holmes C., Francis P., Morris J., Howes M.J., Ballard C. (2011). A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial of Melissa officinalis oil and donepezil for the treatment of agitation in Alzheimer's disease. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 31, 158–164.10.1159/000324438

    CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Cerejeira J., Lagarto L., Mukaetova-Ladinska E.B. (2012). Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. Frontiers in Neurology, 3, 73.10.3389/fneur.2012.00073

    CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Clarke S. (2008). Handling, safety and practical applications for use of essential oils. In Essential chemistry for aromatherapy (2nd ed., pp. 231–264). Edinburgh, Scotland: Elsevier Health Sciences.10.1016/B978-0-443-10403-9.00008-X

    CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Cohen J. (2013). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. New York, NY: Routledge Academic.

    CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Cohen-Mansfield J., Marx M.S., Rosenthal A.S. (1989). A description of agitation in a nursing home. Journal of Gerontology, 44, M77–M84.10.1093/geronj/44.3.M77

    CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Enache D., Winblad B., Aarsland D. (2011). Depression in dementia: Epidemiology, mechanisms, and treatment. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 24, 461–472.10.1097/YCO.0b013e32834bb9d4

    CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Folstein M.F., Folstein S.E., McHugh P.R. (1975). “Mini-mental state.” A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12, 189–198.10.1016/0022-3956(75)90026-6

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • Ford A.H. (2014). Neuropsychiatric aspects of dementia. Maturitas, 79, 209–215.10.1016/j.maturitas.2014.04.005

    CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Forrester L.T., Maayan N., Orrell M., Spector A.E., Buchan L.D., Soares-Weiser K. (2014). Aromatherapy for dementia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2, CD003150.10.1002/14651858.CD003150.pub2

    CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Fuh J.L., Wang S.J., Cummings J.L. (2005). Neuropsychiatric profiles in patients with Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 76, 1337–1341.10.1136/jnnp.2004.056408

    CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Fung J.K., Tsang H.W., Chung R.C. (2012). A systematic review of the use of aromatherapy in treatment of behavioral problems in dementia. Geriatrics & Gerontology International, 12, 372–382.10.1111/j.1447-0594.2012.00849.x

    CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Guo N.W., Liu H.C., Wong P.F., Liao K.K., Yan S.H., Lin K.P., Hsu T.C. (1988). Chinese version and norms of the mini-mental state examination. Journal of Chinese Rehabilitative Medicine, 15, 52–59.

    Google Scholar
  • Holliday-Welsh D.M., Gessert C.E., Renier C.M. (2009). Massage in the management of agitation in nursing home residents with cognitive impairment. Geriatric Nursing, 30, 108–117.10.1016/j.gerinurse.2008.06.016

    CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Holt F.E., Birks T.P.H., Thorgrimsen L., Spector A., Wiles A., Orrell M. (2003). Aroma therapy for dementia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 3, CD003150.10.1002/14651858.cd003150

    CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Lin J.N., Wang J.J. (2008). Psychometric evaluation of the Chinese version of the Cornell Scale for Depression in dementia. Journal of Nursing Research, 16, 202–210.10.1097/01.JNR.0000387307.34741.39

    CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Lin L.C., Kao C.C., Tzeng Y.L., Lin Y.J. (2007). Equivalence of Chinese version of the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 59, 178–185.10.1111/j.1365-2648.2007.04303.x

    CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Lin P.W.K., Chan W.C., Ng B.F.L., Lam L.C.W. (2007). Efficacy of aromatherapy (lavandula angustifolia) as an intervention for agitated behaviours in Chinese older persons with dementia: A cross-over randomized trial. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 22, 405–410.10.1002/gps.1688

    CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Lyketsos C.G., Lopez O., Jones B., Fitzpatrick A.L., Breitner J., DeKosky S. (2002). Prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia and mild cognitive impairment: Results from the cardiovascular health study. Journal of the American Medical Association, 288, 1475–1483.10.1001/jama.288.12.1475

    CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Moyle W., Cooke M.L., Beattie E., Shum D.H., O'Dwyer S.T., Barrett S. (2014). Foot massage versus quiet presence on agitation and mood in people with dementia: A randomised controlled trial. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 51, 856–864.10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2013.10.019

    CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Moyle W., Murfield J.E., O'Dwyer S., Van Wyk S. (2013). The effect of massage on agitated behaviours in older people with dementia: A literature review. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 22, 601–610.10.1111/j.1365-2702.2012.04234.x

    CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • O'Connor D.W., Eppingstall B., Taffe J., van der Ploeg E.S. (2013). A randomized, controlled cross-over trial of dermally applied lavender (lavandula angustifolia) oil as a treatment of agitated behaviour in dementia. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 13, 315.10.1186/1472-6882-13-315

    CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Pfeiffer E. (1975). A short portable mental status questionnaire for the assessment of organic brain deficit in elderly patients. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 23, 433–441.10.1111/j.1532-5415.1975.tb00927.x

    CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Rho K.H., Han S.H., Kim K.S., Lee M.S. (2006). Effects of aromatherapy massage on anxiety and self-esteem in Korean elderly women: A pilot study. International Journal of Neuroscience, 116, 1447–1455.10.1080/00207450500514268

    CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Ropacki S.A., Jeste D.V. (2005). Epidemiology of and risk factors for psychosis of Alzheimer's disease: A review of 55 studies published from 1990 to 2003. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 2022–2030.10.1176/appi.ajp.162.11.2022

    CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Smallwood J., Brown R., Coulter F., Irvine E., Copland C. (2001). Aromatherapy and behaviour disturbances in dementia: A randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 16, 1010–1013.10.1002/gps.473

    CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Snow L.A., Hovanec L., Brandt J. (2004). A controlled trial of aromatherapy for agitation in nursing home patients with dementia. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 10, 431–437.10.1089/1075553041323696

    CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Suzuki M., Tatsumi A., Otsuka T., Kikuchi K., Mizuta A., Makino K., Saruhara T. (2010). Physical and psychological effects of 6-week tactile massage on elderly patients with severe dementia. American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias, 25, 680–686.10.1177/1533317510386215

    CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Wood-Mitchell A., James I.A., Waterworth A., Swann A., Ballard C. (2008). Factors influencing the prescribing of medications by old age psychiatrists for behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia: A qualitative study. Age and Ageing, 37, 547–552.10.1093/ageing/afn135

    CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • Yim V.W.C., Ng A.K.Y., Tsang H.W.H., Leung A.Y. (2009). A review on the effects of aromatherapy for patients with depressive symptoms. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 15, 187–195.10.1089/acm.2008.0333

    CrossrefGoogle Scholar

We use cookies on this site to enhance your user experience. For a complete overview of all the cookies used, please see our privacy policy.

×
  • Received12/7/15 12:00 AM
  • Accepted5/26/16 12:00 AM
  • Published online6/15/16 12:00 AM
  • __article__history--ppub9/1/16 12:00 AM