Mortality after hip fracture is a major problem in the Western world, but its mechanisms remain uncertain. This study assessed the 2-year mortality rate after hip fracture in elderly patients by including hospital factors (eg, intervention type, surgical delay), underlying health conditions, and, for a subset, lifestyle factors (eg, body mass index, smoking, alcohol). A total of 828 patients (183 men) 70 to 99 years old experiencing a hip fracture in 2009 in the province of Varese were included in the study. The risk factors for death were assessed through Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards analysis. Hip fracture incidence per 1000 persons was higher in women (8.4 vs 3.7 in men) and in elderly patients (12.4 for 85–99 years vs 4.4 for 70–84 years). The mortality rate after 1, 6, 12, and 24 months was 4.7%, 16%, 20.7%, and 30.4%, respectively. For the province of Varese, sex (hazard ratio, 0.39 for women), age group (hazard ratio, 2.2 for 85–99 years), and Charlson Comorbidity Index score (hazard ratio, 2.06 for score greater than 1) were found to be statistically significant. The 2-year mortality rate in hip fractures is associated with sex, age, and comorbidities. Male sex, age older than 85 years, and Charlson Comorbidity Index score greater than 1 are associated with a higher risk. Surgical delay was significant in the Kaplan-Meier survival time analysis but not in the Cox hazard analysis, suggesting that early surgery reduces risk in patients with numerous comorbidities.
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