Skip to main content
Published Online:https://doi.org/10.3928/01477447-20160719-06Cited by:13

Abstract

Total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been performed for nearly 50 years. Between 2006 and 2012, more than 600,000 metal-on-metal THA procedures were performed in the United States. This article reviews the production of metal wear debris in a metal-on-metal articulation and the interaction of cobalt and chromium ions that ultimately led to a dramatic decline in the use of metal-on-metal THA articulations. Additionally, the article reviews mechanisms of metal wear, the biologic reaction to cobalt and chromium ions, the clinical presentation of failing metal-on-metal articulations, and current diagnostic strategies. Further, the article discusses the use of inflammatory markers, metal ion levels, radiographs, metal artifact reduction sequence magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound for failed metal-on-metal THA procedures. When adopting new technologies, orthopedic surgeons must weigh the potential increased benefits against the possibility of new mechanisms of failure. Metal-on-metal bearings are a prime example of the give and take between innovation and clinical results, especially in the setting of an already successful procedure such as THA. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(6):371–379.]

  • 1.Learmonth ID, Young C, Rorabeck C. The operation of the century: total hip replacement. Lancet. 2007; 370(9597):1508–1519.10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60457-7

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 2.Kurtz S, Ong K, Lau E, Mowat F, Halpern M. Projections of primary and revision hip and knee arthroplasty in the United States from 2005 to 2030. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007; 89(4):780–785.10.2106/JBJS.F.00222

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 3.Crowninshield RD, Rosenberg AG, Sporer SM. Changing demographics of patients with total joint replacement. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2006; 443:266–272.10.1097/01.blo.0000188066.01833.4f

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 4.Charnley J. Arthroplasty of the hip: a new operation. Lancet. 1961; 1(7187):1129–1132.10.1016/S0140-6736(61)92063-3

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 5.Sundfeldt M, Carlsson LV, Johansson CB, Thomsen P, Gretzer C. Aseptic loosening, not only a question of wear: a review of different theories. Acta Orthop. 2006; 77(2):177–197.10.1080/17453670610045902

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 6.Zywiel MG, Sayeed SA, Johnson AJ, Schmalzried TP, Mont MA. State of the art in hard-on-hard bearings: how did we get here and what have we achieved?Expert Rev Med Devices. 2011; 8(2):187–207.10.1586/erd.10.75

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 7.Holding CA, Findlay DM, Stamenkov R, et al.The correlation of RANK, RANKL and TNFalpha expression with bone loss volume and polyethylene wear debris around hip implants. Biomaterials. 2006; 27(30):5212–5219.10.1016/j.biomaterials.2006.05.054

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 8.Veigl D, Niederlova J, Krystufkova O. Periprosthetic osteolysis and its association with RANKL expression. Physiol Res. 2007; 56(4):455–462.

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 9.St John KR, Zardiackas LD, Poggie RA. Wear evaluation of cobalt-chromium alloy for use in a metal-on-metal hip prosthesis. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2004; 68(1):1–14.10.1002/jbm.b.10053

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 10.Jacobsson SA, Djerf K, Wahlstrom O. Twenty-year results of McKee-Farrar versus Charnley prosthesis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1996; 329(suppl):S60–S68.10.1097/00003086-199608001-00006

    CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • 11.Bozic KJ, Kurtz S, Lau E, et al.The epidemiology of bearing surface usage in total hip arthroplasty in the United States. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2009; 91(7):1614–1620.10.2106/JBJS.H.01220

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 12.Hug KT, Watters TS, Vail TP, Bolognesi MP. The withdrawn ASR THA and hip resurfacing systems: how have our patients fared over 1 to 6 years?Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2013; 471(2):430–438.10.1007/s11999-012-2547-5

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 13.Ng VY, Arnott L, McShane MA. Perspectives in managing an implant recall: revision of 94 Durom Metasul acetabular components. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2011; 93(17):e100.10.2106/JBJS.J.01311

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 14.Langton DJ, Jameson SS, Joyce TJ, Hallab NJ, Natu S, Nargol AV. Early failure of metal-on-metal bearings in hip resurfacing and large-diameter total hip replacement: a consequence of excess wear. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2010; 92(1):38–46.10.1302/0301-620X.92B1.22770

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 15.Wynn-Jones H, Macnair R, Wimhurst J, et al.Silent soft tissue pathology is common with a modern metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty. Acta Orthop. 2011; 82(3):301–307.10.3109/17453674.2011.579518

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 16.Bolland BJ, Latham JM, Whitwell D. Hip resurfacing: early failures cause concern. BMJ. 2010; 341:c5632.10.1136/bmj.c5632

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 17.Glyn-Jones S, Isaac S, Hauptfleisch J, McLardy-Smith P, Murray DW, Gill HS. Does highly cross-linked polyethylene wear less than conventional polyethylene in total hip arthroplasty? A double-blind, randomized, and controlled trial using roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis. J Arthroplasty. 2008; 23(3):337–343.10.1016/j.arth.2006.12.117

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 18.Pandit H, Glyn-Jones S, McLardy-Smith P, et al.Pseudotumours associated with metal-on-metal hip resurfacings. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2008; 90(7):847–851.10.1302/0301-620X.90B7.20213

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 19.Steele GD, Fehring TK, Odum SM, Dennos AC, Nadaud MC. Early failure of articular surface replacement XL total hip arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty. 2011; 26(6 suppl):14–18.10.1016/j.arth.2011.03.027

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 20.Holzwarth U, Thomas P, Kachler W, Goske J, Schuh A. Metallurgical differentiation of cobalt-chromium alloys for implants [in German]. Orthopade. 2005; 34(10):1046–1047, 1049–1051.10.1007/s00132-005-0849-y

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 21.Migaud H, Putman S, Krantz N, Vasseur L, Girard J. Cementless metal-on-metal versus ceramic-on-polyethylene hip arthroplasty in patients less than fifty years of age: a comparative study with twelve to fourteen-year follow-up. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2011; 93(suppl 2):137–142.10.2106/JBJS.J.01720

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 22.Lee RK, Longaray J, Essner A, Wang A. Metal-on-metal bearings: the problem is edge-loading wear. Surg Technol Int. 2010; 20:303–308.

    MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 23.Hu XQ, Isaac GH, Fisher J. Changes in the contact area during the bedding-in wear of different sizes of metal on metal hip prostheses. Biomed Mater Eng. 2004; 14(2):145–149.

    MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 24.Dowson D, Hardaker C, Flett M, Isaac GH. A hip joint simulator study of the performance of metal-on-metal joints: Part I. The role of materials. J Arthroplasty. 2004; 19(8 suppl 3):118–123.

    MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 25.Tipper JL, Firkins PJ, Ingham E, Fisher J, Stone MH, Farrar R. Quantitative analysis of the wear and wear debris from low and high carbon content cobalt chrome alloys used in metal on metal total hip replacements. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 1999; 10(6):353–362.10.1023/A:1026473723777

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 26.Jin ZM, Dowson D, Fisher J. Analysis of fluid film lubrication in artificial hip joint replacements with surfaces of high elastic modulus. Proc Inst Mech Eng H. 1997; 211(3):247–256.10.1243/0954411971534359

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 27.Maxian TA, Brown TD, Pedersen DR, McKellop HA, Lu B, Callaghan JJ. Finite element analysis of acetabular wear: validation, and backing and fixation effects. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1997; (344):111–117.

    MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 28.Gill HS, Waite JC, Short A, Kellett CF, Price AJ, Murray DW. In vivo measurement of volumetric wear of a total knee replacement. Knee. 2006; 13(4):312–317.10.1016/j.knee.2006.04.001

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 29.De Haan R, Pattyn C, Gill HS, Murray DW, Campbell PA, De Smet K. Correlation between inclination of the acetabular component and metal ion levels in metal-on-metal hip resurfacing replacement. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2008; 90(10):1291–1297.10.1302/0301-620X.90B10.20533

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 30.Udofia IJ, Yew A, Jin ZM. Contact mechanics analysis of metal-on-metal hip resurfacing prostheses. Proc Inst Mech Eng H. 2004; 218(5):293–305.10.1243/0954411041932854

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 31.Mathew MT, Abbey S, Hallab NJ, Hall DJ, Sukotjo C, Wimmer MA. Influence of pH on the tribocorrosion behavior of CpTi in the oral environment: synergistic interactions of wear and corrosion. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2012; 100(6):1662–1671.10.1002/jbm.b.32735

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 32.Gilbert JL, Buckley CA, Jacobs JJ. In vivo corrosion of modular hip prosthesis components in mixed and similar metal combinations: the effect of crevice, stress, motion, and alloy coupling. J Biomed Mater Res. 1993; 27(12):1533–1544.10.1002/jbm.820271210

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 33.Diomidis N, Mischler S, More NS, Roy M. Tribo-electrochemical characterization of metallic biomaterials for total joint replacement. Acta Biomater. 2012; 8(2):852–859.10.1016/j.actbio.2011.09.034

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 34.Kaddick C, Wimmer MA. Hip simulator wear testing according to the newly introduced standard ISO 14242. Proc Inst Mech Eng H. 2001; 215(5):429–442.10.1243/0954411011536019

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 35.Wimmer MA, Fischer A, Buscher R, et al.Wear mechanisms in metal-on-metal bearings: the importance of tribochemical reaction layers. J Orthop Res. 2010; 28(4):436–443.

    MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 36.Hallab NJ, Messina C, Skipor A, Jacobs JJ. Differences in the fretting corrosion of metal-metal and ceramic-metal modular junctions of total hip replacements. J Orthop Res. 2004; 22(2):250–259.10.1016/S0736-0266(03)00186-4

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 37.Mao X, Tay GH, Godbolt DB, Crawford RW. Pseudotumor in a well-fixed metal-on-polyethylene uncemented hip arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty. 2012; 27(3):493.10.1016/j.arth.2011.07.015

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 38.Schmidt M, Weber H, Schon R. Cobalt chromium molybdenum metal combination for modular hip prostheses. Clin Orthop Relat Res.1996; (329 suppl):S35–S47.10.1097/00003086-199608001-00004

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 39.Baxter RM, MacDonald DW, Kurtz SM, Steinbeck MJ. Characteristics of highly cross-linked polyethylene wear debris in vivo. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2013; 101(3):467–475.

    MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 40.Doorn PF, Campbell PA, Worrall J, Benya PD, McKellop HA, Amstutz HC. Metal wear particle characterization from metal on metal total hip replacements: transmission electron microscopy study of periprosthetic tissues and isolated particles. J Biomed Mater Res. 1998; 42(1):103–111.10.1002/(SICI)1097-4636(199810)42:1<103::AID-JBM13>3.0.CO;2-M

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 41.Firkins PJ, Tipper JL, Saadatzadeh MR, et al.Quantitative analysis of wear and wear debris from metal-on-metal hip prostheses tested in a physiological hip joint simulator. Biomed Mater Eng. 2001; 11(2):143–157.

    MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 42.Caicedo MS, Samelko L, McAllister K, Jacobs JJ, Hallab NJ. Increasing both CoCrMoalloy particle size and surface irregularity induces increased macrophage inflammasome activation in vitro potentially through lysosomal destabilization mechanisms. J Orthop Res. 2013; 31(10):1633–1642.10.1002/jor.22411

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 43.Keegan GM, Learmonth ID, Case CP. A systematic comparison of the actual, potential, and theoretical health effects of cobalt and chromium exposures from industry and surgical implants. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2008; 38(8):645–674.10.1080/10408440701845534

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 44.Xia Z, Kwon YM, Mehmood S, Downing C, Jurkschat K, Murray DW. Characterization of metal-wear nanoparticles in pseudotumor following metal-on-metal hip resurfacing. Nanomedicine. 2011; 7(6):674–681.

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 45.Mao X, Wong AA, Crawford RW. Cobalt toxicity: an emerging clinical problem in patients with metal-on-metal hip prostheses?Med J Aust. 2011; 194(12):649–651.

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 46.Tower SS. Arthroprosthetic cobaltism: neurological and cardiac manifestations in two patients with metal-on-metal arthroplasty. A case report. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2010; 92(17):2847–2851.10.2106/JBJS.J.00125

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 47.Baldwin EL, Byl JA, Osheroff N. Cobalt enhances DNA cleavage mediated by human topoisomerase II alpha in vitro and in cultured cells. Biochemistry. 2004; 43(3):728–735.10.1021/bi035472f

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 48.El-Yamani N, Zuniga L, Stoyanova E, Creus A, Marcos R. Chromium-induced genotoxicity and interference in human lymphoblastoid cell (TK6) repair processes. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2011; 74(15–16):1030–1039.10.1080/15287394.2011.582282

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 49.Dunstan E, Ladon D, Whittingham-Jones P, Carrington R, Briggs TW. Chromosomal aberrations in the peripheral blood of patients with metal-on-metal hip bearings. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2008; 90(3):517–522.10.2106/JBJS.F.01435

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 50.Ladon D, Doherty A, Newson R, Turner J, Bhamra M, Case CP. Changes in metal levels and chromosome aberrations in the peripheral blood of patients after metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty. 2004; 19(8 suppl 3):78–83.10.1016/j.arth.2004.09.010

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 51.Colognato R, Bonelli A, Ponti J, et al.Comparative genotoxicity of cobalt nanoparticles and ions on human peripheral leukocytes in vitro. Mutagenesis. 2008; 23(5):377–382.10.1093/mutage/gen024

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 52.Visuri T, Pulkkinenb P, Paavolainenc P, Pukkalad E. Cancer risk is not increased after conventional hip arthroplasty. Acta Orthop. 2010; 81(1):77–81.10.3109/17453671003667150

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 53.Dumbleton JH, Manley MT. Metal-on-metal total hip replacement: what does the literature say?J Arthroplasty. 2005; 20(2):174–188.10.1016/j.arth.2004.08.011

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 54.Visuri T, Pukkala E, Paavolainen P, Pulkkinen P, Riska EB. Cancer risk after metal on metal and polyethylene on metal total hip arthroplasty. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1996; 329(suppl):S280–S289.10.1097/00003086-199608001-00025

    CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • 55.Visuri TI, Pukkala E, Pulkkinen P, Paavolainen P. Cancer incidence and causes of death among total hip replacement patients: a review based on Nordic cohorts with a special emphasis on metal-on-metal bearings. Proc Inst Mech Eng H. 2006; 220(2):399–407.10.1243/095441105X63282

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 56.Catelas I, Petit A, Vali H, et al.Quantitative analysis of macrophage apoptosis vs. necrosis induced by cobalt and chromium ions in vitro. Biomaterials. 2005; 26(15):2441–2453.10.1016/j.biomaterials.2004.08.004

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 57.Catelas I, Petit A, Zukor DJ, Huk OL. Cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of cobalt and chromium ions on J774 macrophages: implication of caspase-3 in the apoptotic pathway. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2001; 12(10–12):949–953.10.1023/A:1012800813662

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 58.Petit A, Mwale F, Zukor DJ, Catelas I, Antoniou J, Huk OL. Effect of cobalt and chromium ions on bcl-2, bax, caspase-3, and caspase-8 expression in human U937 macrophages. Biomaterials. 2004; 25(11):2013–2018.10.1016/j.biomaterials.2003.08.040

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 59.Catelas I, Petit A, Zukor DJ, Antoniou J, Huk OL. TNF-alpha secretion and macrophage mortality induced by cobalt and chromium ions in vitro: qualitative analysis of apoptosis. Biomaterials. 2003; 24(3):383–391.10.1016/S0142-9612(02)00351-4

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 60.Akbar M, Brewer JM, Grant MH. Effect of chromium and cobalt ions on primary human lymphocytes in vitro. J Immunotoxicol. 2011; 8(2):140–149.10.3109/1547691X.2011.553845

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 61.Kwon YM, Xia Z, Glyn-Jones S, Beard D, Gill HS, Murray DW. Dose-dependent cytotoxicity of clinically relevant cobalt nanoparticles and ions on macrophages in vitro. Biomed Mater. 2009; 4(2):025018.10.1088/1748-6041/4/2/025018

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 62.Madathil BK, Lin Q, Hew CL, Mohanty M. Hypoxia-like effect of cobalt chromium alloy micro particles on fibroblasts in vitro. J Orthop Res. 2010; 28(10):1360–1367.10.1002/jor.21133

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 63.Andrews RE, Shah KM, Wilkinson JM, Gartland A. Effects of cobalt and chromium ions at clinically equivalent concentrations after metal-on-metal hip replacement on human osteoblasts and osteoclasts: implications for skeletal health. Bone. 2011; 49(4):717–723.10.1016/j.bone.2011.06.007

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 64.Germain MA, Hatton A, Williams S, et al.Comparison of the cytotoxicity of clinically relevant cobalt-chromium and alumina ceramic wear particles in vitro. Biomaterials. 2003; 24(3):469–479.10.1016/S0142-9612(02)00360-5

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 65.Doorn PF, Mirra JM, Campbell PA, Amstutz HC. Tissue reaction to metal on metal total hip prostheses. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1996; 329(suppl):S187–S205.10.1097/00003086-199608001-00017

    CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • 66.Yang J, Merritt K. Detection of antibodies against corrosion products in patients after Co-Cr total joint replacements. J Biomed Mater Res. 1994; 28(11):1249–1258.10.1002/jbm.820281102

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 67.Merritt K, Rodrigo JJ. Immune response to synthetic materials: sensitization of patients receiving orthopaedic implants. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1996; 326:71–79.10.1097/00003086-199605000-00009

    CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • 68.Cohen HA. The role of carrier in sensitivity to chromium and cobalt. Arch Dermatol. 1976; 112(1):37–39.10.1001/archderm.1976.01630250009002

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 69.Kwon JY, Weon JI, Koedrith P, Park KS, Kim IS, Seo YR. Identification of molecular candidates and interaction networks via integrative toxicogenomic analysis in a human cell line following low-dose exposure to the carcinogenic metals cadmium and nickel. Oncol Rep. 2013; 30(3):1185–1194.

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 70.Thomas P. Patch testing and hypersensitivity reactions to metallic implants: still many open questions. Dermatitis. 2013; 24(3):106–107.10.1097/DER.0b013e31829796f8

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 71.Hallab N, Merritt K, Jacobs JJ. Metal sensitivity in patients with orthopaedic implants. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2001; 83(3):428–436.

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 72.Thierse HJ, Moulon C, Allespach Y, et al.Metal-protein complex-mediated transport and delivery of Ni2+ to TCR/MHC contact sites in nickel-specific human T cell activation. J Immunol. 2004; 172(3):1926–1934.10.4049/jimmunol.172.3.1926

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 73.Granchi D, Cenni E, Trisolino G, Giunti A, Baldini N. Sensitivity to implant materials in patients undergoing total hip replacement. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2006; 77(2):257–264.10.1002/jbm.b.30445

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 74.Willert HG, Buchhorn GH, Fayyazi A. Hypersensitivity to wear products in metal-on-metal articulation. Bioceramics in Joint Arthroplasty. 2003; 65–72.10.1007/978-3-642-85763-8_7

    CrossrefGoogle Scholar
  • 75.De Smet KA. Belgium experience with metal-on-metal surface arthroplasty. Orthop Clin North Am. 2005; 36(2):203–213.10.1016/j.ocl.2005.01.004

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 76.Lohmann CH, Meyer H, Nuechtern JV, et al.Periprosthetic tissue metal content but not serum metal content predicts the type of tissue response in failed small-diameter metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasties. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2013; 95(17):1561–1568.10.2106/JBJS.L.01273

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 77.Cook RB, Bolland BJ, Wharton JA, Tilley S, Latham JM, Wood RJ. Pseudotumour formation due to tribocorrosion at the taper interface of large diameter metal on polymer modular total hip replacements. J Arthroplasty. 2013; 28(8):1430–1436.10.1016/j.arth.2013.02.009

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 78.Hart AJ, Satchithananda K, Liddle AD, et al.Pseudotumors in association with well-functioning metal-on-metal hip prostheses: a case-control study using three-dimensional computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012; 94(4):317–325.10.2106/JBJS.J.01508

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 79.Williams DH, Greidanus NV, Masri BA, Duncan CP, Garbuz DS. Prevalence of pseudotumor in asymptomatic patients after metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2011; 93(23):2164–2171.10.2106/JBJS.J.01884

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 80.Griffin JW, D'Apuzzo M, Browne JA. Management of failed metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty. World J Orthop. 2012; 3(6):70–74.10.5312/wjo.v3.i6.70

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 81.Kwon YM, Ostlere SJ, McLardy-Smith P, Athanasou NA, Gill HS, Murray DW. “Asymptomatic” pseudotumors after metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty: prevalence and metal ion study. J Arthroplasty. 2011; 26(4):511–518.10.1016/j.arth.2010.05.030

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 82.Ries MD, Link TM. Monitoring and risk of progression of osteolysis after total hip arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012; 94(22):2097–2105.

    MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 83.Huber M, Reinisch G, Trettenhahn G, Zweymuller K, Lintner F. Presence of corrosion products and hypersensitivity-associated reactions in periprosthetic tissue after aseptic loosening of total hip replacements with metal bearing surfaces. Acta Biomater. 2009; 5(1):172–180.10.1016/j.actbio.2008.07.032

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 84.Korovessis P, Petsinis G, Repanti M, Repantis T. Metallosis after contemporary metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty: five to nine-year follow-up. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2006; 88(6):1183–1191.10.2106/JBJS.D.02916

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 85.Park YS, Moon YW, Lim SJ, Yang JM, Ahn G, Choi YL. Early osteolysis following second-generation metal-on-metal hip replacement. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2005; 87(7):1515–1521.10.2106/JBJS.D.02641

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 86.Lombardi AV, Barrack RL, Berend KR, et al.The Hip Society: algorithmic approach to diagnosis and management of metal-on-metal arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2012; 94(11 suppl A):14–18.10.1302/0301-620X.94B11.30680

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 87.Wyles CC, Larson DR, Houdek MT, Sierra RJ, Trousdale RT. Utility of synovial fluid aspirations in failed metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty. 2013; 28(5):818–823.10.1016/j.arth.2012.11.006

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 88.Hart AJ, Sabah SA, Bandi AS, et al.Sensitivity and specificity of blood cobalt and chromium metal ions for predicting failure of metal-on-metal hip replacement. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2011; 93(10):1308–1313.10.1302/0301-620X.93B10.26249

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 89.Sidaginamale RP, Joyce TJ, Lord JK, et al.Blood metal ion testing is an effective screening tool to identify poorly performing metal-on-metal bearing surfaces. Bone Joint Res. 2013; 2(5):84–95.10.1302/2046-3758.25.2000148

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 90.Bernstein M, Walsh A, Petit A, Zukor DJ, Huk OL, Antoniou J. Femoral head size does not affect ion values in metal-on-metal total hips. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2011; 469(6):1642–1650.10.1007/s11999-010-1630-z

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 91.Meyer H, Mueller T, Goldau G, Chamaon K, Ruetschi M, Lohmann CH. Corrosion at the cone/taper interface leads to failure of large-diameter metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasties. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2012; 470(11):3101–3108.10.1007/s11999-012-2502-5

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 92.Engh CA, MacDonald SJ, Sritulanondha S, Korczak A, Naudie D, Engh C. Metal ion levels after metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty: a five-year, prospective randomized trial. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2014; 96(6):448–455.10.2106/JBJS.M.00164

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 93.de Steiger RN, Hang JR, Miller LN, Graves SE, Davidson DC. Five-year results of the ASR XL Acetabular System and the ASR Hip Resurfacing System: an analysis from the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2011; 93(24):2287–2293.10.2106/JBJS.J.01727

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 94.Dyrkacz RM, Brandt JM, Ojo OA, Turgeon TR, Wyss UP. The influence of head size on corrosion and fretting behaviour at the head-neck interface of artificial hip joints. J Arthroplasty. 2013; 28(6):1036–1040.10.1016/j.arth.2012.10.017

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 95.Donaldson FE, Coburn JC, Siegel KL. Total hip arthroplasty head-neck contact mechanics: a stochastic investigation of key parameters. J Biomech. 2014; 47(7):1634–1641.10.1016/j.jbiomech.2014.02.035

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 96.Griffin JW, D'Apuzzo M, Browne JA. Management of failed metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty. World J Orthop. 2012; 3(6):70–74.10.5312/wjo.v3.i6.70

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 97.Toms AP, Smith-Bateman C, Malcolm PN, Cahir J, Graves M. Optimization of metal artefact reduction (MAR) sequences for MRI of total hip prostheses. Clin Radiol. 2010; 65(6):447–452.10.1016/j.crad.2009.12.014

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 98.Sabah SA, Mitchell AW, Henckel J, Sandison A, Skinner JA, Hart AJ. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in painful metal-on-metal hips: a prospective study. J Arthroplasty. 2011; 26(1):71–76.10.1016/j.arth.2009.11.008

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 99.Chang EY, McAnally JL, Van Horne JR, et al.Metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty: do symptoms correlate with MR imaging findings?Radiology. 2012; 265(3):848–857.10.1148/radiol.12120852

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 100.Nishii T, Sakai T, Takao M, Yoshikawa H, Sugano N. Ultrasound screening of peri-articular soft tissue abnormality around metal-on-metal bearings. J Arthroplasty. 2012; 27(6):895–900.10.1016/j.arth.2011.09.015

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar

We use cookies on this site to enhance your user experience. For a complete overview of all the cookies used, please see our privacy policy.

×