Skip to main content
Published Online:https://doi.org/10.3928/01913913-20121127-02Cited by:28

Abstract

Purpose:

To study the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in a neonatal intensive care unit and obtain information on risk factors associated with ROP.

Methods:

Four hundred twenty-three infants were screened for ROP between July 2006 and July 2010. Demographic information, clinical data, and risk factors were reviewed.

Results:

The incidence was 40.4% (171 infants) for ROP, 9.2% (39 infants) for severe ROP, and 5.67% (24 infants) for laser treatment. Mean gestational age and birth weight were significantly lower among infants with ROP versus those without ROP (26 ± 0.13 vs 28.55 ± 0.12 weeks, P < .0001 and 840.5 ±17.49 vs 1,190.24 ± 20.20 g, P < .0001, respectively). Birth weight (P < .001), gestational age (P < .001), mechanical ventilation therapy (P = .039), and necrotizing enterocolitis (P = .019) were independent risk factors for ROP.

Conclusion:

Gestational age and birth weight were the most significant risk factors for developing ROP. The study population had an elevated percentage of infants with birth weight less than 1,000 g (extremely low birth weight), yet there was no corresponding increase in severe ROP incidence and treatment when compared to other studies.

  • 1.Gilbert C. Retinopathy of prematurity: a global perspective of the epidemics, population of babies at risk and implications for control. Early Hum Dev. 2008; 84:77–82.10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2007.11.009

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 2.Zin AA, Moreira ME, Bunce C, Darlow BA, Gilbert CE. Retinopathy of prematurity in 7 neonatal units in Rio de Janeiro: screening criteria and workload implications. Pediatrics. 2010; 126:e410–e417.10.1542/peds.2010-0090

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 3.Bremer DL, Palmer EA, Fellows RR, et al.Strabismus in premature infants in the first year of life. Arch Ophthalmol. 1998; 116:329–333.

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 4.Repka MX, Summers CG, Palmer EA, Dobson V, Tung B, Davis B. The incidence of ophthalmologic interventions in children with birth weights less than 1251 grams: results through 5 1/2 years. Ophthalmology. 1998; 105:1621–1627.10.1016/S0161-6420(98)99028-5

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 5.Quinn GE, Dobson V, Kivlin J, et al.Prevalence of myopia between 3 months and 5 1/2 years in preterm infants with and without retinopathy of prematurity. Ophthalmology. 1998; 105:1292–1300.10.1016/S0161-6420(98)97036-1

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 6.Fielder AR. The natural ocular outcome of premature birth and retinopathy: status at 1 year. Arch Ophthalmol. 1995; 113:850–851.10.1001/archopht.1995.01100070020008

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 7.Cryotherapy for Retinopathy of Prematurity Cooperative Group. Multicenter trial of cryotherapy for retinopathy of prematurity: natural history ROP: ocular outcome at 5(1/2) years in premature infants with birth weights less than 1251 g. Arch Ophthalmol. 2002; 120:595–599.

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 8.Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity Cooperative Group. Revised indications for the treatment of retinopathy of prematurity: results of the Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity randomized trial. Arch Ophthalmol. 2003; 121:1684–1694.

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 9.Hameed B, Shyamanur K, Kotecha S, et al.Trends in the incidence of severe retinopathy of prematurity in a geographically defined population over a 10-year period. Pediatrics. 2004; 113:1653–1657.10.1542/peds.113.6.1653

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 10.Schiariti V, Matsuba C, Houbé JS, Synnes AR. Severe retinopathy of prematurity and visual outcomes in British Columbia: a 10-year analysis. J Perinatal. 2008; 28:566–572.10.1038/jp.2008.34

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 11.Bullard SR, Donahue SP, Feman SS, Sinatra RB, Walsh WF. The decreasing incidence and severity of retinopathy of prematurity. J AAPOS. 1999; 3:46–52.10.1016/S1091-8531(99)70094-7

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 12.Chiang MF, Arons RR, Flynn JT, Starren JB. Incidence of retinopathy of prematurity from 1996 to 2000: analysis of a comprehensive New York state patient database. Ophthalmology. 2004; 111:1317–1325.10.1016/j.ophtha.2003.10.030

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 13.Ebrahim M, Ahmad RS, Mohammad M. Incidence and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity in Babol, North of Iran. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2010; 17:166–170.10.3109/09286581003734860

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 14.Romagnoli C. Risk factors and growth factors in ROP. Early Hum Dev. 2009; 85:S79–S82.10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2009.08.026

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 15.Liu L, Tian T, Zheng C-X, et al.Risk factors and laser therapy for retinopathy of prematurity in neonatal intensive care unit. World J Pediatr. 2009; 5:304–307.10.1007/s12519-009-0058-6

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 16.Lad EM, Hernandez-Boussard T, Morton JM, Moshfeghi DM. Incidence of retinopathy of prematurity in the United States: 1997 through 2005. Am J Ophthalmol. 2009; 148:451–458.10.1016/j.ajo.2009.04.018

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 17.Hirabayashi H, Honda S, Morioka I, et al.Inhibitory effects of maternal smoking on the development of severe retinopathy of prematurity. Eye (Lond). 2009; 24:1024–1027.10.1038/eye.2009.263

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 18.Fortes Filho JB, Eckert GU, Valiatti FB, Dos Santos PG, da Costa MC, Procianoy RS. The influence of gestational age on the dynamic behavior of other risk factors associated with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2009; 248:893–900.10.1007/s00417-009-1248-6

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 19.Choo MM, Martin FJ, Theam LC, U-Teng C. Retinopathy of prematurity in extremely low birth weight infants in Malaysia. J AAPOS. 2009; 13:446–449.10.1016/j.jaapos.2009.06.008

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 20.Hoogerwerf A, Schalij-Delfos NE, van Schooneveld MJ, Termote JU. Incidence of retinopathy of prematurity over the last decade in the Central Netherlands. Neonatology. 2010; 98:137–142.10.1159/000280386

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 21.Wani VB, Kumar N, Sabti K, et al.Results of screening for retinopathy of prematurity in a large nursery in Kuwait: incidence and risk factors. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2010; 58:204–208.10.4103/0301-4738.62644

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 22.Express Group. Incidence of and risk factors for neonatal morbidity after active perinatal care: Extremely Preterm Infants Study in Sweden (EXPRESS). Acta Paediatr. 2010; 99:978–992.

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 23.Flynn JT. An international classification of retinopathy of prematurity: development of the classification of the late stages of retinopathy of prematurity. Birth Defects Orig Artic Ser. 1988; 24:175–183.

    MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 24.International Committee for the Classification of Retinopathy of Prematurity. The international classification of retinopathy of prematurity revisited. Arch Ophthalmol. 2005; 123:991–999.

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 25.Reynolds JD, Dobson V, Quinn GE, et al.Evidence-based screening criteria for retinopathy of prematurity: natural history data from the CRYO-ROP and LIGHT-ROP studies. Arch Ophthalmol. 2002; 120:1470–1476.

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 26.Good WV, Hardy RJ, Dobson V, et al.The incidence and course of retinopathy of prematurity: findings from the Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity study. Pediatrics. 2005; 116:15–23.10.1542/peds.2004-1413

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 27.Binkhathlan AA, Almahmoud LA, Saleh MJ, Srungeri S. Retinopathy of prematurity in Saudi Arabia: incidence, risk factors, and the applicability of current screening criteria. Br J Ophthalmol. 2008; 92:167–169.10.1136/bjo.2007.126508

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 28.Blair BM, O’Halloran HS, Pauly TH, Stevens JL. Decreased incidence of retinopathy of prematurity, 1995–1997. J AAPOS. 2001; 5:118–122.10.1067/mpa.2001.113843

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 29.Darlow BA, Hutchinson JL, Simpson JM, Henderson-Smart DJ, Donoghue DA, Evans NJ. Variation in rates of severe retinopathy of prematurity among neonatal intensive care units in the Australian and New Zealand Neonatal Network. Br J Ophthalmol. 2005; 89:1592–1596.10.1136/bjo.2005.073650

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 30.Karkhaneh R, Mousavi SZ, Riazi-Esfahani M, et al.Incidence and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity in a tertiary eye hospital in Tehran. Br J Ophthalmol. 2008; 92:1446–1449.10.1136/bjo.2008.145136

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 31.Lad EM, Nguyen TC, Morton JM, Moshfeghi DM. Retinopathy of prematurity in the United States. Br J Ophthalmol. 2008; 92:320–325.10.1136/bjo.2007.126201

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 32.Screening examination of premature infants for retinopathy of prematurity. A joint statement of the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, and the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Pediatrics. 1997; 100(2 Pt 1):273.

    MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 33.Palmer EA. Results of U.S. randomized clinical trial of cryotherapy for ROP (CRYO-ROP). Doc Ophthalmol. 1990; 74:245–251.10.1007/BF02482615

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 34.Good WV. Final results of the early treatment for retinopathy of prematurity (ETROP) randomized trial. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 2004; 102:233–248.

    MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 35.Repka MX, Palmer EA, Tung B. Involution of retinopathy of prematurity: Cryotherapy for Retinopathy of Prematurity Cooperative Group. Arch Ophthalmol. 2000; 118:645–649.10.1001/archopht.118.5.645

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 36.Dhaliwal C, Fleck B, Wright E, Graham C, McIntosh N. Incidence of retinopathy of prematurity in Lothian, Scotland, from 1990 to 2004. Arch Dis Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2008; 93:F422–F426.10.1136/adc.2007.134791

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 37.Gilbert C, Fielder A, Gordilo L, et al.Characteristics of infants with severe retinopathy of prematurity in countries with low, moderate, and high levels of development: implications for screening programs. Pediatrics. 2005; 115:e518–e525.10.1542/peds.2004-1180

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 38.Shah VA, Yeo CL, Ling YL, Ho LY. Incidence, risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity among very low birth weight infants in Singapore. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2005; 34:169–178.

    MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 39.Giannantonio C, Papacci P, Cota F, et al.Analysis of risk factors for progression to treatment-requiring ROP in a single neonatal intensive care unit: is the exposure time relevant?J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2012; 25:471–477.10.3109/14767058.2011.587056

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 40.Fortes Filho JB, Eckert GU, Valiatti FB, Dos Santos PG, da Costa MC, Procianoy RS. The influence of gestational age on the dynamic behavior of other risk factors associated with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2010; 248:893–900.10.1007/s00417-009-1248-6

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 41.Kumar P, Sankar MJ, Deorari A, et al.Risk factors for severe retinopathy of prematurity in preterm low birth weight neonates. Indian J Pediatr. 2011; 78:812–816.10.1007/s12098-011-0363-7

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar
  • 42.Giapros V, Drougia A, Asproudis I, Theocharis P, Andronikou S. Low gestational age and chronic lung disease are synergistic risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity. Early Hum Dev. 2011; 87:653–657.10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2011.05.003

    Crossref MedlineGoogle Scholar

We use cookies on this site to enhance your user experience. For a complete overview of all the cookies used, please see our privacy policy.

×